Coffee consumption from the perspective of toxicology and nutrition. Let us see the facts.

Coffee consumption from the perspective of toxicology and nutrition. Let us see the facts.

Coffee consumption from the perspective of toxicology and nutrition. Let us see the facts.

Csaba Tóth, Zsófia Clemens


Coffee consumption from the perspective of toxicology and nutrition. Let us see the facts.

There are many recreational drugs, but while alcohol, tobacco, carbohydrates, and, above all, narcotics and intoxicants are officially recognised as having a detrimental effect on human health, coffee enjoys unwaning popularity. Coffee smells pleasant, and it always accompanies social events and simple home meals alike. Some drink one coffee a day, others several mugs – and this does not necessarily depend on national culture. The media loves the topic of coffee; an online article on coffee is bound to attract many readers and many clicks. But this article is not meant to be a clickbait.

So if you are interested in the origin, cultivation and processing of the coffee plant or in consumer habits, I recommend a Google search. This article focusses exclusively on the impact of coffee on human health, and puts gastronomic considerations aside. Now, let us look at the facts. These facts differ from what we would like to hear to justify that our addiction is good. They also differ from what is in the interest of coffee traders.

You can read or hear contradictory statements about coffee on the very same day or in the very same media. In the morning, you are told that three coffees improve memory. In the evening, you hear that you must be careful because coffee consumption contributes to the development of dementia. My favourite “fact” is that, according to Swedish researchers, there is a correlation between female breast size and coffee consumption; more specifically, three coffees a day shrink the breasts, but reduce the risk of cancer. This is bad news for women who then must choose between breast size and good memory, but at least they can avoid breast cancer. But let us be serious.

From a botanical perspective, coffee is not a bean. Apparently, the term “bean” was applied in the early days, but coffee, in fact, is a fruit. It is the seeds of the fruits that are processed and then used as a recreational product.

To see the impact of coffee on human health, we must approach the issue from the perspective of toxicology. Of course, the first factor to examine is always caffeine. Caffeine is a large chemical molecule synthesised by the plant to protect the fruit from being damaged prematurely by insects and herbivores. Just like tea bush, the coffee plant contains caffeine and theobromine (the penultimate metabolite of caffeine synthesis). Incidentally, tea contains twice as much caffeine as coffee does. Obviously, these substances are also found in chocolate and cocoa. This means that caffeine is a poison which can potentially be deadly to insects; what is more, in some mammals theobromine causes deadly poisoning. Caffeine is an insecticide produced by the coffee plant as a form of self-protection.

Caffeine has been studied extensively; the results are diverse. I do not want to bore the reader with details of contradictory scientific studies on coffee. However, there are two major problems with these studies.

  1. The test of a nutrient will bring reliable and usable results only when studied in the context of a healthy diet. It will not suffice to analyse coffee consumption habits alone and then to associate them with a symptom or physiological event. Persons on the average Western diet consumes, on a daily basis, thousands of substances that affect their physiological processes. These substances, both individually and in combination, have an impact on the biochemical functioning of the human organism.
  2. When a study focusses on caffeine alone, it will fail to give information on other substances contained in coffee – and there are plenty of them. More than 800 affecting only the aroma have been identified so far. There are approximately 200 substances which affect the taste. All these substances will have an effect on coffee drinkers.

Although we are still at the beginning of our article, we can safely conclude that currently there is no available medical study that examines the effect of coffee reliably, and, therefore, the conclusions of relevant studies are not valid. This is why there are many contradictory statements and conclusions. These studies and their practical implications should be discarded right away.

As for substances in coffee other than caffeine, most of them change during preparation: their structure changes under the influence of heat. Caffeine, being a thermostable molecule, is an exception. It is not destroyed until the coffee beans are charred and burnt. Its molecular structure does not change when the beverage is prepared. The aroma and taste of the beverage are results of the change of other molecules, such as those which give the smell of soil and gasoline (plus, as I have mention, at least 788 more).


Volatile components identified in a type of coffee after roasting: hydrocarbons, pyrroles, nitrogen compounds (non-heterocyclic), alcohols, benzopyrroles, sulphur compounds (non-heterocyclic), aldehydes, pyrazines, phenols, ketones, benzopyrazines, furans, acids, pyridines, benzofurans, esters, benzopyridines, pyrans, ethers, tiophenes, pyrons, acetates, benzotiophenes, lactones, oxazoles, thiazoles, anhydrides, benzoxazoles, benzothiazoles, Total)


Coffee also contains various acids. With brewing, acids may break down into smaller molecules; still, plenty of them are left.

Because of the above, the details of roasting, temperature, pressure and brewing time are very important. It is possible to make disgusting coffee drinks even from the best ingredients.

The effects of caffeine are easy to sum up. Caffeine increases heart rate, and slightly increases blood pressure (only by 3–5 mmHg). It increases the cardiac output and diuresis (that is, the amount of urine), and stimulates the central nervous system. As for the latter, let us put it this way: caffeine blocks inhibitory mechanisms so that stimulatory mechanisms start to predominate, which means that caffeine clearly has an impact on the functioning of neurotransmitters. This is due to the fact that its chemical structure is similar to that of a transmitter called adenosine, and, therefore, it can bind to cells where adenosine would bind.

Most questions about coffee pertain to its impact on blood pressure. Is it advisable to drink coffee if one has high blood pressure? Does coffee increase blood pressure differently? It is impossible to say why it is retained in our collective consciousness and why medicine has left the previous piece of information as a heritage to us, but we can now safely say that coffee (more specifically, caffeine) increases the diameter of most blood vessels, and, therefore, lowers blood pressure. Coffee has nothing to do with the development of or maintaining high blood pressure. Even a few cups of coffee will not raise the blood pressure.

Another common statement is that coffee causes heartburn. Yet, in fact, relevant studies failed to take into account subjects’ diet.

Heartburn and reflux are not caused by coffee, but by cereals, dairy products and other carbohydrates consumed at the same time, such as the large amount of sugar or honey added to the coffee drink. It has been observed for nearly 10 years that coffee drinkers on a paleo-ketogenic diet do not develop reflux.

At this point, it is to be noted that most scientific publications on coffee are based on questionnaires, and, most often, on the subjective opinion of respondents. No measurements or physical examinations are conducted to substantiate the findings. This fact, coupled with the criticism discussed above, also leads to the conclusion that none of the studies are to be considered valid; not to mention that it is practically impossible to make two identical coffee drinks in which chemicals are present in the exactly same combination.

The chemical composition of coffee:

  • sugar, mainly polysaccharides
  • alkaloids
  • trigonellines
  • nicotinic acid
  • amino acids/proteins
  • caffeine
  • theobromine
  • theophylline,
  • carboxylic acid and other acids
  • volatile components (currently, approximately 800 of them are known; all of them can be present at the same time). See the Figure above.
  • vegetable oils

Evidently, when speaking about coffee, the products of a smaller chemical plant are listed. It is also easy to see that such substances do have an effect on the human organism.

Now, let us discuss the factors that basically determine whether coffee consumption is healthy or not.

As shown by the author’s nearly 10 years of experience in nutrition intervention, patients on a paleo-ketogenic diet (i.e. a meat/fat-based diet) often have complaints that cease once they quit coffee. Such complaints include fatigue, tightness in the throat, numbness, cramps in the calves, muscle ache, changes in vision, eczema on the scalp and back of the hands, low back pain, swelling of the face, papular rash on the back (autoimmune nodules) diarrhoea, etc. The cause of low back pain and muscle pain is rhabdomyolysis, or the disintegration of muscle cells due to an autoimmune process. This is the most sever effect of coffee.

All these complaints are clearly linked to coffee consumption. Obviously, they are not necessarily specific.

The substances in coffee, even when consumed in small amounts, increase the permeability of the natural biological membrane in the gut system, which, in turn, may trigger inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune processes. The resulting inflammation can cause, among others, fatigue. These changes and processes are shown by laboratory tests.

The figure below indicates the results of an intestinal permeability test of a patient conducted in our laboratory. As shown in the figure, intestinal permeation switched back to normal after the patient had quitted coffee. The patient had been on a paleo-ketogenic diet for three years.

The substances in coffee drinks can also inhibit the absorption of certain nutrients, such as iron. Iron deficiency has been identified in a very large number of cases; it has not necessarily resulted in anaemia, but still remains a characteristic manifestation of coffee consumption.

As evidenced by our anamnestic data, among patients with certain diseases the rate of those who consume coffee is very high. In such cases, the consumption of tea, cocoa and chocolate can actually have impacts similar to those of coffee. Such impacts include glioblastoma (one of the fastest-growing tumours), hypothyroidism, enlarged prostate, multiple sclerosis and low back pain.

When it comes to coffee consumption, quantity and frequency obviously matter. It is very difficult to consume the lethal dose: LD50 (i.e. the amount that causes fatal poisoning in 50% of people) is approximately one cup of coffee / kg body weight. Obviously, it is not easy to drink that quantity.

It is recommended that people with autoimmune diseases or tumours quit coffee completely. People who have recovered from their autoimmune disease can experiment with coffee consumption once their intestinal permeation has returned to normal, but they should consume very small amounts, up to one espresso a day. For cancer patients, it is recommended to avoid coffee consumption for life.

Pregnant women are also advised not to drink coffee. The placenta acts as a biological membrane between the mother and the fetus, similarly to the membrane which separates the intestinal cavity from the blood. Coffee has an unfavourable effect on the permeability of the placental membrane similar to its effect on intestinal permeability. This may worsen unpleasant problems during pregnancy. Large amounts of coffee can even cause miscarriages or act as a teratogenic factor. It is better to avoid such risks.

To conclude, from the perspective of medical toxicology, coffee is not healthy. It modifies the functioning of biological membranes, and triggers inflammations, allergies or autoimmune processes. Those who still choose to consume even a small amount of coffee can expect unpleasant symptoms and effects.

Mention must be made of one more thing about coffee: addiction. Unfortunately, coffee (similarly to alcohol and tobacco) causes physical and mental addiction. The addiction can be overcome, but it still can cause weeks of discomfort and put one’s perseverance to a very difficult test. Addiction to caffeine used to be included in the International Classification of Diseases until 2010. When you drink coffee, the number of adenosine receptors on cell membranes grows in your organism. The organism senses that something is taking up the space of adenosine and inhibition is decreasing; in response, it builds new receptors into the membrane. When you quit coffee, the number of receptors suddenly will be too high, and adenosine will overwork, which means that you experience slowness, tiredness and drowsiness. These are the worst symptoms of coffee withdrawal. It is good news that this condition lasts only a few days or, at most, a week or two. Another common symptom of withdrawal is migraine-like headache, which occurs as a result of the narrowing of blood vessels. As they say, addicted persons are weak, but, fortunately, addiction to coffee is easy to overcome physiologically. But it may take a long time, even years, to give up attachment to the bodily movements associated with coffee drinking, to the smell of coffee or to the social aspects of coffee consumption.

As a doctor, I can say only what is evidenced by the facts. Coffee is not healthy. It is not clear as yet how long or in what quantities someone on a healthy diet can consume coffee without having to face negative consequences. So, I suggest that you refrain from coffee consumption, or consume it as a rare treat (black or with honey) only on special occasions, and you should drink only coffee made from real coffee beans with a real coffee maker.


Are our pets dangerous? Are they able to transmit the coronavirus and cause disease? We now got a clear answer.

Are our pets dangerous? Are they able to transmit the coronavirus and cause disease? We now got a clear answer.

Are our pets dangerous? Are they able to transmit the coronavirus and cause disease? We now got a clear answer.


On several occasions, I have been asked by my acquaintances whether our pets, especially dogs and cats, are at risk for Covid-19 infection or can they transmit the disease. Of course, there is a logical answer to this, but biology does not always work along the lines of ordinary logic. But now, we can now give a clear answer to this question. It was expected that sooner or later studies would emerge that would answer this question.



A team of veterinarians, virologists, and laboratory specialists examined dogs and cats (76 animals in total) in Texas whose owners were confirmed to be infected with coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).

The scientific study on this can be found here. The main results of the study are as follows:

• In more than 25% of the homes studied, animals were also infected with SARS-CoV-2: 47% of cats and 15% of dogs were positive, according to antibody testing.

• In several dogs and cats the virus itself was also detected

• The pets were asymptomatic, only one dog and one cat “sneezed”

• One of the cats also tested positive 32 days after the onset of the owner’s illness. This case is currently known as the longest SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.

• Certain studies suggest that the virus is transferred from humans to animals, and not the other way around. The Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) also recommends social distancing from companion animals. (We yet prefer a healthy diet both for humans and animals – note from Paleomedicina)


Author: Dr. Csaba Tóth

Initial consultations break

Initial consultations break

Initial consultations break


We will have to take a break from initial consultations because of a creative leave.

Currently, we are unable to accept new patients, except for high-grade or advanced cancer* cases, in which the time factor is crucial. We accept control consultation, healthy consultation and additional 2-week follow-up requests only. For the forthcoming weeks, our schedule is already full and in December and January, we will focus on research work and writing publications. We will resume accepting new patients from February.

Within the meat-eater community our team is the only one who is regularly publishing clinical research data in scientific or medical journals. But in the last few years due to a surge in the number of patient consultations we were not able to dedicate any time to writing publications.

Over the course of the years we have collected data, knowledge and observations from thousands of patients similar to which has not been seen, collected or published so far. Our patients often ask the question whether we have publication for a specific disease. Our usual answer is that we have ample experience for that specific disease, but do not have a formal written publication. In order to bridge the gap between our clinical experience and the publications we need to momentarily pause consultations for new patients and fully dedicate to scientific analysis, writing and publishing.

Once we will have these publications, our notions, claims, and patient suggestions become more substantiated, more accepted and better understood. As a result, this would possibly have a bigger impact on the current healthcare system and eventually on the life of diseased people.

We apologize for any inconvenience and thank you for your understanding.

*In this case, please contact

Charismatic Youtube influencers and science. Is it a good combination or not?

Charismatic Youtube influencers and science. Is it a good combination or not?

Charismatic Youtube influencers and science. Is it a good combination or not?


There is a guy coming up with a bombastic video:


We have to say that Frank Tufano is right in saying that the carnivore diet is not sustainable in the long run. But it is also not a good idea to give dietary advice to others if you do not even know what the right diet for yourself is. Especialy, if “others” are sicker than you. We suspect that the new carnivore-potato diet “invention” will not work either. What’s guaranteed is that there will be many who will follow another nonsense advice out of desperation. Next admissions and new “my new diet” videos are also guaranteed.

What is happening with the carnivore diet is a good example of how one can build fame out of nowhere and at the same time efficiently destroying others’ brilliant scientific ideas. Until a few years ago the field of nutrition was dominated by real experts, out of whom a few original thinkers came up with revolutionary scientific ideas about the relationship between diet and diseases. 

For years, many have wondered (or even laughed at) why we use the name PKD and why we insist in keeping this diet in a separate category from the carnivore one. At the same time, we wondered why we should have jumped on a new term as we started using the PKD already in 2010, way before the carnivore diet became a trend. Some now-popular Youtube carnivore influencers were still preaching a vegetarian diet when we were already practicing and publishing about the PKD and diseases. 

We suggest going back to the roots, getting to know the real science experts who, instead of clickbaiting, did real science and set the foundations for us. Speaking of our times, we think that practicing dietary advising should go back to specialized professionals instead of being practiced by bikini models, sellers and social media influencers who do not have any background in life sciences or medicine.


Zsofia Clemens, PhD
Csaba Tóth MD


Ps: We have borrowed the term “charismatic blogger” from Loren Cordain who in 2016 wrote an essay on the phenomenon also worth reading.

PKD Questions and Answers – 2

PKD Questions and Answers – 2

PKD Questions and Answers – 2


Answers by Dr. Csaba Tóth (07.29 2020)



Q1: Why aren’t high fat dairy foods like cheese, double thick cream and butter included in a Pk diet? Is this based on evidence or anecdotal experience?

Nothing in PKD can be based on anecdotal experience because then it would not be scientifically sound. Due to the specific mechanism of action of the immune system, milk proteins can trigger inflammatory reactions even in the smallest amount, due to the dentritic cells. There is no dairy that is not containing milk proteins. Even ghee, contains it in small quantities.


Q2: Asking again because it has not yet been addressed: what is Paleomedicina’s opinion on eating a 100% raw diet of raw meat and raw fat? is anyone in this group practising it? i personally have been eating raw meat and fat for over 2 years now and found digestion and energy much better. (i still eat some non-PKD approved items though). i would also be curious to hear the experts’ opinion on eating wild caught fatty fish (mackerel, salmon, char…). is it beneficial for omega 3’s and such (in case one is unable to source brains) or would you consider fatty ruminant meat superior in all regards?

Please, see the above answer.


Q3: It would be interesting to know and have experience as high level athletes in various disciplines / strength athletes, who have followed pkd for a long time. How their performance / results has changed over time. How to use PKD, and how manipulate proteins and fats, to gain muscle mass and hypertrophy in bodybuilders and strenght athletes?

As I have written before, this is a very specific question that can only be answered properly here. Anyone interested can take advantage of our services.


Q4: If i don’t have access to brain and marrow can i only eat liver in larger amounts ?

I also answered this question last week.


Q5: Is duck fat allowed in PKD?

I theory, yes, if the good quality. But finding a good source is almost impossible.


Q6: If not asked already, is there a type of honey that is best or ideal, e.g. Manuka or just any raw honey?

It doesn’t matter.


Q7: Can local bee pollen be included (1 teaspoon) without sabotaging results? My husband is a bee keeper so we have our own honey and pollen.

It makes no sense. It is not useful but may contain biologically active plant proteins that increase membrane permeability.


Q8: Does each meal have to be 2:1 or just the total daily?

Each meal.


Decided to change my question for this week. Because of religious dietary restrictions I cannot eat pork or suet, what other main sources of fat are recommended since this diet is primarily fat motivated?

Any animal fat


Q9: Are there cases where PEG400 tests turned out to be negative, in spite of the existence of an autoimmune disease?

No, autoimmune diseases are typically associated with increased intestinal permeability.


Q10: Hello, I would like to know what is the PKD’s thinking about some substances or foods that have been heard for many years that are very beneficial, for example:, turmeric, ginger, aloe, you will see, oregano etc … Thank you

Please, read the general rules or protocol


Q11: Is organic liver significantly better for us and why? Is liver better off to be eaten raw or cooked and why?

Anything that is organic is better than commercial.


Q12: If I eat too much fat, will this be evident in my blood glucose and ketone readings?



Q13: What is the optimal age to introduce a baby (PKD mum and breastfeeding) to solid food (meat fat and organ meat). What amount of protein and organ meat is recommended for babies? Is there also a 2:1 fat protein ratio recommended for babies? Does anyone have any resources and information that I can read for babies starting PKD?

I have answered this question before. One year of age or over.


Q14: When can egg yolks be introduced? And when whole eggs?

This is one of the typically individualized questions.


Q15: Feeling cold, could that be a sign of metabolism slowing down? ( beeing an athelete with high muscle mass low fat%)



Q16: Does a daily teaspoon (10-20gr) of honey could be okay for patients during the deep healing protocol?

It depends on the disease.


Q17: I’ve tried to not weight the food and eat close to 2:1 ratio, only following my hunger. In this way, I eat too much total food. And proteins bring my fasted glucose over 80, ketones always over 2.5. (Probably proteins might go over 1-1.2 gr/kg). Might be a problem from too much proteins? In this case the optimal thing is come back to use the scale?

Is this is an optimal thing until you learn the rules and to eat to your real hunger.

PKD Questions and Answers – 2

PKD Questions and Answers – 1

PKD Questions and Answers – 1


Answers by Dr. Csaba Tóth (07.22.2020)



Q1: Portion size control / understand how much food you need

Keep the 100:35 meat:fat ratio and eat when you are hungry. This is the most accurate way. Once you have learned the diet, the goal is not to weigh the food because that is not lifelike.


Q2: Is it possible to increase the amount of bone marrow and decrease the amount of fat instead?



Q3: Is non-flavored mead (honey, wine) allowed in the non-strict version? It’s made from only water, honey and culture. Since honey allowed I presume only the latter (the fermentation agent) can be problematic. But some fermented food (like sauerkraut) is allowed, so it may not?

Wine is not supported.


Q4: I know we should avoid strong spices. How about a little herbs in our sausages like a pinch of coriander? Or parsley? Again if not on strictest protocol

Avoid them, they can increase intestinal permeability.


Q5: Are canned sardines (preserved in water and salt only) allowed?

In theory it may be OK. But don’t trust the food industry unconditionally. Also, there is nothing in sardines that is not to be found in grazing animals.


Q6: Is sauerkraut allowed, when feeling better?



Q7: What does the cocoa powder cause? Inflammation or leaky gut or other problems. Is 2-4 teaspoons of cocoa powder weekly total properly yet for a healthy person (like 1 cup of coffee daily)?

Avoid it entirely. It seriously increases intestinal permeability and results in inflammation.


Q8: My lamb carcass fat has branding on it…is that ok to eat, once fried? Or should I cut off the branding?

It’s a matter of taste, I remove it.


Q9: 70% animal food 30% plant food is mentioned in PKD. Does that mean 30% of energy from plant foods?

No, it means volume. 


Q10: I am concerned about getting enough calcium, but I presume PKD would not include a bone meal powder/supplement — so what are the best foods to eat to ensure adequate calcium intake? Thank you.

Don’t worry, PKD is the only healthy diet that contains all the necessary nutrients in the right amounts.


Q11: I know PM recommends salting food to taste. But I’m a salt addict and I over-salt my food. I can’t help it. It has always been the case. Is it compromising my health improvements? Should I force myself to reduce salt quantities? Thank you.

Use as much salt as you want.


Q12: Another salt question: is Real salt considered the same as Himalayan pink salt and should be avoided?

Sea salt is best, but rock salts are not bad either. It is important that it is free of additives.


Q13: Am I eating enough fat and organs? I eat beef from a grass finished cow I bought off a local farmer. All the fat, suet, and organs (heart, tongue, liver, thymus, pancreas) were added to the grinder with the beef for grinding into minced meat. When I cook the patties, the outside is crisp and inside raw. I use the bones for broth. No nutrition label comes with this. (I also eat 2 organic egg yolks and 1 can sardines per day. Carnivore for 10 months)

If you are in ketosis and if you follow the rules you will get enough nutrients. As far as offal is concerned, only the result of the laboratory test gives an answer.


Q14: Is it terribly, terrible bad to include some cheese every now and then?



Q15: Csaba, I saw you had previously said “That in the case of athletes, eat above necessity not to 2/1 but in 4/1.” Could you elaborate on the science of athletes eating and PKD?

I have very little time, but if someone asks for this as a service, I will gladly prepare an eating plan.


Q16: Thank you for answering our food Questions Csaba Tóth. My type 1 diabetes antibodies are now negative and I require no medications. (I took insulin medication for 13 years GAD and 1A2 positive). I initially ate fatty beef and lamb only for the first 8 months then I added very occasional eggs wild seafood. I feel best eating beef and lamb. At what stage during healing it is a good idea to see if honey, occasional seasonal fruit and vegetables are suitable to add in small amounts?

Antibodies may be also present in healthy people. Their level does not tell much as regards disease activity. A laboratory test, including repeated C-peptide measurement are required to assess food “expansion”.


Q17: When will the English Version of the cookbook be released and where can we purchase one?

We tare doing our best but we have a lot of other work too. I think it will be ready later this year.


Q18: What problems may arise from eating too much fat (e.g. beyond the ratio 2:1 F:P)?

Nausea, vomiting, headache, nausea, slowing down, hypothyroidism, fatigue, etc.


Q19: How careful should one be with cross contamination in a shared kitchen? For example if my fork just touches a vegetable or something and then I put it in my mouth without realising, will this hinder healing?

You don’t have to worry about vegetables. Dairy products, grains and vegetable oils can be dangerous as a contamination source.


Q20: I finally thought of my food related question. I’ve seen in your slide presentations that you may have treated dogs in the past. My understanding is that dogs need a higher level of muscle meat. Can you give a brief outline of meat/offal/fat ratios?


The body of dogs works in almost the same way in terms of digestion as it does in humans. A few little things are different.


Q21: Does the calculation using 0.6-0.8g of protein per kg of body weight take the bioavailability of food into account? I recall loosing muscle due to a colitis flare although I ate sufficient or excess protein. Could a decreased absorption be a problem?

Yes, it is possible, but hunger is the way to go. Eat when you are hungry. 


Q22: Any suggestions of easily digested meat. I just had an endoscopy and have duodenal ulcers gastritis a sliding stomach hiatus hernia and Oesophagitis. Nice! So far my attempts at eating fat have just caused nausea. It was pork back fat thou. I’ve ordered raw beef suet to see if that helps but won’t get it till next week. The local farmers market sells decent sirloins and ribeyes whole. I’m thinking of trying slivers of either of those raw in the hope it moves downwards past these nasty ulcers. Is that a good plan? Thank you.

Eat grazing animals or pigs. There is no difference in digestion. You may need a consultation.


Q23: What are the approved fruits once healthy?

Small amount, only for a healthy persons. But a piece of raspberry is not the same as a piece of banana!!!


Q24: Is eating liver only (may be more than 250gr a week) enough for those who can’t eat other or have no access to other organs ?

No, bone marrow is needed too.


Q25: Vegetables recommended by PKD should be eaten raw or cooked?

It does not matter.


Q26: have 2 meals a day totalling less then 400 grams as recommended, but what about the bone broth soup? What rules apply there? Do I have to have the soup during one of the 2 meals? Does the soup itself count as a meal? Or it does not matter as if it was just water? I would love to know what Paleomedicina thinks about that.

It should be regarded separately and should not exceed 100-200 ml per day. In specific cases other advice may apply. It should be considered mainly as water. 


Q27: I’ve read that Csaba Tóth drinks coffee. When is it safe to try having a little bit

In case you are already completely healthy


Q28: Can one eat too many organ meats and not enough muscle meat?

Yes. Follow the rules both for meat and organ meats. 


Q29: Anchovies? Yay or nay?

There is nothing in them that would not be in the grazing animals. If you eat fresh, it can be good.


Q30: What’s PM’s take on carbonated water? I live in Sweden and we have very good tap water so I carbonate it at home.

Tap water is usually good, but the tap water is not OK if it is containing high amounts of magnesium, sodium or calcium.


Q31: If one can’t get a hold of pasture raised marrow (which is the case for me now for maybe a month or so) is it better to skip marrow all together or can I eat regular marrow (not too bad quality)?

You can skip it for a month but not longer. There are excellent organ meat patés at


Q32: What is PM view on high LDL (above 12mmol/L). Do they have any patients who started with a high LDL and in time were able to lower?

Yes, LDL only depends on what you eat.


Q33: I cannot get into ketosis, 1 week in from a carnivore diet, from keto previously for a year (when I was in ketosis), finding it impossible to hit 80% fat, I’m between 70 and 75% daily, 1gm carbs, rest protein. Can’t get brains, marrow or sweetbreads here, do i just eat more pure lard or could there be something else going on here? I eat fatty grassfed beef, home cooked pork rind, some salmon or steak w fat, thanks! (.4 mmol ketones fasted in morning)

If you follow all the rules of the PKD, ketosis develops in 3-4 days max. In all cases


Q34: Is avocado one of the PKD approves vegies? And if so, in what quantity should it be consumed, and roughly how often is considered ok?

Avocado is full of biologically active substances. Not PKD cathegory.


Q35: Second start for me… and the plan drives me crazy

I can’t give advice on that. If you are sick then an initial consultation may be needed.


Q36:Do we need to eat more than 250 gr of bone marrow per week if we can’t find a good source of brain as brain is more nutritious?

No, they are interchangeable.


Q37: What is Paleomedicina’s opinion on eating a 100% raw diet of raw meat and raw fat? is anyone in this group practising it? i personally have been eating raw meat and fat for over 2 years now and found digestion and energy much better. (i still eat some non-PKD approved items though). i would also be curious to hear the experts’ opinion on eating wild caught fatty fish (mackerel, salmon, char…). is it beneficial for omega 3’s and such (in case one is unable to source brains) or would you consider fatty ruminant meat superior in all regards

For the Homo sapiens the raw meat and fat are natural foods.


Q38: When carcass beef fat is melted by heat and turns liquid, does the fat undergo chemical changes? Why is the rendered fat harder for some people to digest? If the liquid fat is put in the refrigerator and solidifies, is the resolidified fat a different chemical composition from the original fat before it was melted?


The meltability of fats depends only on their fat composition and temperature. It is constant and hardly changes with heat treatment.