Online mini-symposium

Online mini-symposium

December 4, 2021

16:00 Budapest/CET time

Online nutritional course, mini symposium


December 4, 2021

16:00 Budapest/CET time


Duration: 3 x 50 min + 30 minutes for questions

Speaker: Dr. Zsófia Clemens, neurobiologist, clinical researcher curriculum, publications

Language: English


Price: 140 EUR

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Upon cancellation 50% of the payment is refundable

The presentation will cover the following topics:


Presentation #1: Ketosis

  • Ketosis – basics
  • Glucose and ketones
  • Ketosis vs. ketoacidosis
  • Ketogenesis at the physiological level
  • Glucose and ketone metabolism
  • Dow e need carbohydrates?
  • The practice of ketosis
  • History of the ketogenic diet
  • The PKD
  • The classical ketogenic diet
  • The carnivore diet
  • Physiological differences between glucose- and fat-based metabolism


Presentation #2: Nutrients

  • Dietary supplements
  • Evolutionary logic
  • Clinical experience
  • Glucose-ascorbate antagonism (GAA) theory
  • Antinutrients
  • Organs and vitamins
  • Nutrient interactions
  • Intervention studies with vitamin C
  • Intervention studies with vitamin D
  • Vitamin D and the brain
  • Vitamin D level on the PKD (161 patients)
  • Vitamin D and seasons in patients on the PKD
  • Vitamin D according to countries in patients on the PKD
  • Magnesium and glucose
  • Plant vs. animal sources of vitamins
  • What can cause low vitamin levels on the PKD?


Presentation #3: Clinical cases

  • Crohn’s disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Glioblastoma
  • Autism

The 2-week follow-up program

The 2-week follow-up program

The 2-week follow-up program

Zsófia Clemens, Csaba Tóth

Description of the Initial consultation + 2-week follow-up program


What is the aim of the 2WFU?

The aim of the program is to make sure you understand and apply the PKD protocol properly and to provide you with the needed support during the transition period. PKD rules are simple but details and individual suggestions are crucial and should not be underestimated. Even small deviations may hinder your recovery. Often, small deviations from the rules are hard to notice and preexisting habits are in the way of recovery. We are here with the 2WFU program to help you identify and rectify whatever is hindering your recovery for you to reach your health goals.


Why do we only provide medical consultation with the 2WFU?

Your success is our success. Experience tells us that patients who take part in the 2WFU program are much more successful in reaching the expected health goals as compared to those who only had an initial medical consultation. It is our goal to help you reach your health goals effectively, without frustration, as quickly as possible.


What do we offer during the 2WFU?

During the 2WFU we offer dietary guidance along with medical follow-up. The follow-up takes place on an online platform. On this platform, you will be able to access comprehensive educational material. The 2WFU includes tracking of your daily home measurements, two dietary consultations with our dietary assistant via skype, and message exchange.


Dietary guidance

As part of the dietary education, we provide you with comprehensive educational material to read, daily recipe tips for the two weeks, meal pictures explaining the basics of the diet, and more than 100 questions and answers. During the dietary consultations, our dietary consultant answers questions about recipes, kitchen techniques and is ready to assess your diet diary or food pictures. You can change messages with our colleagues on a daily basis. You will be able to upload pictures of your meals to get feedback. Whenever possible, we do our best to share information about reliable meat sources in your own country.


Medical guidance

During the 2WFU we provide continued medical guidance. This means that a medical doctor will track your progress and evaluate your daily feedback. You will receive medical suggestions, and/or advice on additional medical tests if applicable. We are ready to evaluate the medical test results that you send us anytime within the 2WFU. We also provide short medical explanations if needed. Please, note that we cannot provide medical guidance once the dietary suggestions are not followed, or the other way around. Taking only dietary or medical advice, or cherry-picking among our suggestions may have undesired consequences. We will only provide continued medical guidance if you comply with suggestions and we receive the necessary continued feedback from you.


How do I keep in contact with you during the 2WFU?

All correspondence will take place on this online patient follow-up platform. Shortly after the initial consultation, you will receive an email with a user name and password that will allow you to enter the follow-up platform. The two consultations with our dietary assistant will take place on skype.


What do we not provide during the 2WFU?

Our program is primarily a medical and not an educational service. It is also not a discussion forum. Our goal is to provide you with the necessary medical and dietary advice that is needed to reverse your health condition. We provide short nutritional or medical explanations regarding the advice given to you. At the same time, we cannot get into the discussion of specific scientific and medical topics.

If you are interested in specific scientific topics, we can suggest you articles to read. At the same time, be aware of the fact that as regards PKD and diseases there is no relevant literature other than the one written by Paleomedicina-ICMNI. The reason behind this is that PKD was created by Paleomedicina-ICMNI, and currently no one else uses it in a clinical practice or publishes about it. Yet, we have not published articles on each and every subject we have experience in and you may be interested in.

Please, also note that we do not manage emergency situations. If you experience a sudden deterioration of your condition or a serious new-onset symptom, you have to be seen by your local emergency health care service.

The 2WFU does not include evaluation of the 3-week control blood work or the control consultation. Evaluation of the 3-week blood work is part of the control consultation.


What do we need from you during the 2WFU?

We provide our time, expertise, and knowledge in dietary therapy and in standard medical therapies. We require your cooperation in following our suggestions and providing us with the necessary feedback. Once the 2WFU starts, we need daily feedback from you regarding your home-measured blood glucose, blood ketones, body weight, daily food amount, and symptoms. You will be able to enter these data on the online platform. During the first dietary consultation with the dietary assistant, you will receive instructions on how to provide the follow-up data to us.

Please, keep your questions short and concise. The dietary assistant may not be able to send more than one reply a day. Questions that are not urgent and require a more extensive elaboration will be discussed during the dietary consultation call.


How long after my initial consultation should I start the 2WFU?

You have to start the 2WFU within a week after your initial consultation.


When do I have my first dietary consultation?

The first dietary consultation should be done during the first three working days of the 2WFU.


When do I have my second dietary consultation?

The second dietary consultation typically takes place 7 days after the first consultation, but the exact timing may depend on our dietary assistant’s and your schedule.


How long does the 2WFU last?

The program lasts for 14 days. We are available during the 14 days and not beyond.


What is happening after the 2WFU?

Once the 2WFU ends, you will not be able to upload data or send messages. Upon finalizing the 2WFU you will receive a closing report summarizing our clinical impression, suggestions on how to improve your diet, medical conclusions, and the next medical steps so that you exactly know how to go on.

Please, note that we cannot reply messages after finishing the 2WFU. For administrative issues please use the email address.

If you feel that you need of a continued support after the 2WFU finishes, you may consider booking an additional 2WFU

Although you will not be able to reach us through the follow-up platform, your measurements, uploaded documents and messages will remain available to you. Thus at a later point, you will be able to come back and check all the information that you received from us during the 2WFU.

As regards the next steps after the 2WFU, please, see the next section (What to do after the 2WFU is over?)


What to do after the 2WFU is over?

Once the 2WFU ends, in most cases, we suggest a 3-week blood test as a next step. The blood work list will be individualized for you based on your disease and specific diet and medical questions to answer. This blood work list will be available for on the follow-up platform. Once you have the blood test result you are suggested to book a control consultation. You can book a control consultation at this link (You have to purchase the service called “Control consultation”. Please, also upload your blood work or any other new medical test or home measurement log that you have.

The original blood work result document is absolutely necessary to apply for a control consultation. Please, make sure that the whole list of laboratory parameters is done otherwise we can only give you a partial feedback.

During the control consultation, we will discuss your blood work or any new medical test, compare it to the previous ones, draw conclusions and help to fine-tune the diet if needed.


Can you give me examples of how other patients benefited from your program?

You will be able to find short medical reports of previous patients taking part in the initial consultation + 2-week program here.


Do you have published case studies?

Yes, we do. We are involved in nutritional and medical research. You can find our published scientific studies at this link.


Before booking a consultation: FAQ

Before booking a consultation: FAQ

Before booking a consultation: FAQ

Zsófia Clemens, Csaba Tóth

Below are the questions that we typically receive from new patients. Please, check if you have the same/similar question.


Below are the questions that we typically receive from new patients. Please, check if you have the same/similar question.


In which diseases is the paleolithic ketogenic diet effective?

Below you will find a list of diseases in which the paleolithic ketogenic diet proves to be effective. We have encountered almost every medical condition. Yet, infectious and traumatic disorders, as well as surgical cases, fall into a separate category. In addition, there are always exceptions, rare diseases, or rare medical situations. Therefore, when it comes to individual cases, we will only be able to respond in light of the full knowledge of the medical records and during the consultation. However, we can safely say that if you have a non-genetic chronic medical condition, we can either cure it or improve it significantly if you follow our recommendations. Below you can read an extensive but not complete list of the diseases we most often come across and treat with success:


  • Metabolic syndrome conditions

Type 2 diabetes

Insulin resistance


  • Autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis)
Crohn’s disease
Ulcerative colitis
Rheumatoid arthritis
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
Immune hepatitis
Multiple sclerosis
Wegener’s granulomatosis and other granulomatous
Myasthenia gravis
Pernicious anemia
New-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)
LADA diabetes
Autoimmune encephalitis
Anemia pernicious
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)
Aplastic anemia
Temporal arteritis
Celiac disease
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)
Graves’ disease
Myasthenia gravis
Pemphigus vulgaris
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)
Sjögren’s syndrome
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Ankylosing spondylitis (Bechterew’s disease)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Wegener’s granulomatosis
Lichen plans
Alopecia universalis
Behcet’s disease


  • Cancers

Rectal cancer
Colon cancer
Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Renal cancer
Liver cancer
Brain cancer
Breast cancer
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)
Thyroid cancer
Lung cancer
Bronchial cancer
Larynx cancer
Soft palate cancer
Pancreatic tumor
Biliary tumors
Esophagus cancer
Prostate cancer
Metastatic cancer


  • Other Conditions

Sleep apnea
Other sleep issues: snoring, restless legs syndrome (RLS)
PCOS syndrome
Female infertility
Male infertility
Transient global amnesia
Pickwick syndrome
Toxicosis of pregnancy
Gestational diabetes
Coronary artery bypass surgery
Paranoid schizophrenia
Panic disorder
Hyperactivity, ADHD
Gilbert’s syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)
Breast and ovary cysts
Epilepsy (generalized epilepsy, localization-related epilepsy, other forms of epilepsy)
Learning difficulties
Dry eye syndrome
Prostate hypertrophy
Renal failure
All forms of anemia
Upper respiratory tract infections
Leg ulcers
Uncertain abdominal complaints
Cystic diseases
Overmedicated conditions



I am a vegetarian. Can you help me?

If you are ready to change your diet, then yes, we can help you. But we will not be able to help you if you are not willing to change your diet.


My mother/father/friend is suffering from a disease. Can you help me persuading them to consult with you and to start following the PKD?

We cannot help with this. It is their own and free decision what to eat and what therapy to follow. We can only help those who have already made their own decision and are open to our suggestions.


I want to stop taking my medications / I do not want to stop taking my medications. Please, advise!

Whether you need or do not need your medicines is an individual medical decision. We can give medicine-related advice only to those patients who take part in the 2-weeks follow-up program and adhere to the diet. We cannot provide such advice in advance because it would not be safe.


You are currently following up my wife/husband/daughter/son/mother/father. I am worried. I would like to inquire about his/her condition.

Please, be informed that we are in contact only with the patient himself/herself. We understand that you are concerned, but we can not give any information without their consent. If you would like to receive information about your loved one, they need to provide us with his/her consent to answer your question.


Are you able to help me? I cannot purchase your program without having a prior answer to this question.

Most patients with chronic diseases are helped by our method. But your cooperation, perseverance are also needed. You also need to follow our recommendations to see results. What we can say to you is that we are doing our best and using most of our experience in order to help you.


I was diagnosed with histamine intolerance, familiar hypercholesterinaemia, adrenal fatigue etc… I was said that your diet and method might worsen my condition.

When it comes to the PKD and its use in different diseases, we suggest not relying on others who do not have a medical background or have no experience with the PKD specifically. In our program, we will also check the correctness of your diagnosis and revise it if needed. We will discuss whether any of the given diagnoses is a bogus, fake diagnosis and, if so, what may be the root of your problem in your case.


I am a cancer patient. Are you able to treat me with the press-pulse method, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, 2-deoxy-glucose, or the (Buteyko) breathing technique?

Please, be aware that we do not support these practices. We only support scientific methods that we have seen to be working in reality. We are not supporting practices that are currently popular but not helping or even harming patients.


Please, contact my doctor and persuade him/her that I should eat this way.

It is only your decision, not your doctor’s, what diet and therapy you follow. You do not need consent from your doctor to eat in a specific way.


I want to use your method together with what my physician is suggesting to me. My ask is that you team up with my physician.

Please, be informed that the approach and method we use and the current standard of care for most diseases may be mutually contradictory at several points. Therefore, an attempt to combine the two approaches will likely predispose you to disappointment. We suggest that you opt for one direction or another, one physician or another, and stick to it. Otherwise, you will not be able to see things clearly and draw the correct conclusions.


Can you suggest me a physician with your approach in my country?

No, it is not possible, as only our medical group uses PKD to treat chronic diseases. Even if it may seem that others are undertaking patients with low carb/keto/carnivore diets, these diets are not the best choices when it comes to autoimmune diseases and cancer. Also, the treatment of such conditions requires a lot of experience.


I have Lyme disease.

I have SIBO.

I have chronic fatigue.

I have histamine intolerance.

I have a C. difficile infection.

I have adrenal fatigue.

I have gut dysbiosis.

I am a lean mass hyperresponder

Please, note that many of the above diagnoses are overdiagnoses, false diagnoses, irrelevant diagnoses, or even bogus diagnoses. Regardless of these” diagnoses,” we will be doing our best to find out the real cause of your symptoms and will let you know how to fix them.


I do not want a consultation. I only have one question.

Even if this seems to be only one question, it is impossible to answer responsibly without knowing more about you and your medical and nutritional background.


I am a previous patient of yours. Can I eat vegetables? Why do I have a symptom? Why do I lose weight? Why do I gain weight?

We are not able to answer these questions for those patients whose follow-up program is not active. Not because we do not want to. But because it is impossible to answer if we do not have all the up-to-date information and specifically if we do not see a recent blood work. In this case, we suggest that you do a control consultation.


Why is it not possible to have a single consultation?

Because, in our experience, the single consultation is simply not efficient for most of the patients. We do not want you setting up for disappointment.



What do I need to apply to your program of initial consultation+2 weeks follow-up?

Our automatic system will walk you through the consenting and booking stages. You will need to provide your baseline data, answer a few questions regarding your history of disease and current condition, and upload your medical documents.


What kind of medical document do you need?

We need the medical documents from the last 12 months. Specifically, we need your latest blood work. If you have cancer or autoimmune disease, then the blood works and your imaging data (MRI, CT or ultrasound report), and your discharge documents from your last doctor’s visits are needed. If further documents are needed to be seen, we will contact you before our scheduled appointment.

IMPORTANT: We need to have your original medical documents with the original title with your identifying data. We cannot accept and review medical records where the patient name or other identifying data are edited out.


Do you need the CD of my MRI, CT or PET?

Yes, it is helpful to review the original imaging data. You will be able to send the content of the CD through a megafile sending program. First, prepare a single compressed/zipped file from everything that you have on the CD and upload this single file.


What do you offer during the 2-weeks follow-up?

During the 2-weeks follow-up, we offer dietary guidance along with medical follow-up. It includes tracking your daily home measurements, two dietary consultations with our dietary assistant, a messages exchange, access to our knowledge base containing recipes, meal pictures, questions and answers, detailed written information about the PKD.


What is happening after the 2-weeks follow-up?

Upon finalizing the 2-weeks follow-up, we will provide a closing report summarizing our clinical impression, suggestions on how to improve your diet, medical conclusions, and the following medical steps so that you exactly know how to go on.

If you feel that you need continued support after the 2-weeks follow-up finishes, you may consider booking an additional 2-weeks follow-up. Also, there are cases, where there is a medical reason to do a second 2-weeks follow-up.

Typically, the next step is to do a control blood work (according to the list that we provide to you). Once you have the blood test result, you are suggested to book a control consultation. You can book a control consultation at this link: You have to purchase the service called “Control consultation”.


I have already finished my 2-weeks follow-up. What can I do if I have a quick question?

If you need quick message exchange or advice outside the control consultation (which cannot be a substitute for emergency medical care), you may book this consultation type “Extraordinary, Short Medical Advice” for a written communication within a short time


Can you provide me with a medical certificate / medical opinion / referral.

For existing patients, yes, we can. To do so, please go to book this service at and choose” Medical certificates”


What do your services cost?

You can see the prices here after subscribing.


Can you put me in contact with a patient who has a similar disease to mine?

No, unfortunately, we cannot. We are not entitled to give out anybody else’s contacts.


I am lost. I can only see conflicting ideas and suggestions. I do not know what to do. Please, help! Please, suggest a podcast that I can listen to!

If you have a disease or you are taking medicines, you need expert advice, not theoretical discussions, podcasts, or papers to read. First, decide who do you want help from, and then stick to that expert. We suggest choosing an expert whose recommendations have been consistent over time.


I have a disease. I am not following and not willing to follow PKD. Can I have a discussion with you about my condition?

No, we cannot devote time to such discussions. We want to focus on those who already decided to work with us. If you are not yet there, we suggest you read our webpage for more information. We also suggest that you read the detailed description of the PKD.


Do you have a case study of disease …?

We do have case studies about many diseases, though far less than the ones we have experience with. There are two reasons for this: publishers in mainstream media pushing back approaches and results with low carb/ketogenic diets, and the more so with the PKD. Second, what’s important is to have the knowledge and experience, independent of whether there is a publication. Just remember, whenever you visit your GP or another specialist, you also do not ask for his or her publications.

Nevertheless, you will be able to read short case studiesof ours here: and



Case studies: hypothyreosis, prostate enlargement, T2DM, overmedication, metastatic cancer and more…

Case studies: hypothyreosis, prostate enlargement, T2DM, overmedication, metastatic cancer and more…

Case studies: hypothyreosis, prostate enlargement, T2DM, overmedication, metastatic cancer and more…

Zsófia Clemens, Csaba Tóth

We are often asked the question of whether we have a case report on a specific disease. We cannot write a case report on every single case we cured. Not to mention case reports published in peer-reviewed journals, which is a big task and usually a very long process to wait out. Usually more than the time required to recover and sometimes even longer than you have if you are diagnosed with a severe condition. In the below article we are giving you outlines or at least a glimpse of the histories of patients with different diseases. The descriptions are far from being full, but we concentrate on the main aspects of the diseases.








PSA (prostate specific antigen) is only one marker, and there are many more to keep an eye on in prostate enlargement and prostate cancer. But the below figure shows what is expected if one switches to the PKD. The classical ketogenic diet (KD) is not ok if you have this condition. During the classical ketogenic diet, PSA increased, despite the patient followed a low-carb diet. Ketosis alone is not enough. The composition of your diet is crucial if you have prostate enlargement.












This patient had extreme fatigue, bad sleep, bruises on the arms, and mood swings. She was already “trying” to follow PKD with mixed results. She took part in our consultation + two-week follow-up program. Day-by-day, we rectified her diet, adjusted the meat:fat ratio to her actual needs, and caught other small mistakes that preventing her from improving previously.




Initially, the patient had brain fog, body pain, swollen extremities, diarrhea and other symptoms. She was overweight. She has been taking desiccated thyroid. She was already following “partial” PKD (meat+vegetables) without major results. She took part in our program, and during the two weeks she perfected her diet, she solidified her knowledge about the application of the PKD, and gained confidence. As can be seen in the below figure, all her symptoms improved during the two weeks. She lost a significant amount of weight. Her thyroid supplementation could have been tapered down. In one month, her TSH went back to normal, and her vitamin levels (vitamin B12, folate, vitamin D) improved.




The patient had G6PD deficiency, multiple chemical sensitivity, muscle weakness, depression, and anxiety. He had a history of multiple hemolyses requiring hospitalization.



In long-standing type 1 diabetes, it is not possible to stop using external insulin. However, there are at least 3 benefits: lowering insulin dose, avoiding hypoglycemia episodes, and preventing long-term diabetic complications








49-years-old male patient taking part in the two-weeks follow-up program. In 18 days blood pressure normalized, and he could discontinue the antihypertensive medication. He lost 4 kilograms.


More case studies are coming…

The deeper meaning of PKD. Be careful, very hard!

The deeper meaning of PKD. Be careful, very hard!

The deeper meaning of PKD. Be careful, very hard!



People of the Arctic regions of Canada and Greenland are undergoing a gradual assimilation to “civilised” society. They buy food in supermarkets, and hardly anything remains of their traditional lifestyle. By contrast, certain peoples of Northern Russia are experiencing a population growth, and were able to preserve their traditional ways of life.

In 30 years, the population of the Nenets has grown from 29,000 to 44,000.

Reindeer meat, generally consumed fresh and raw, is the most important part of their diet. The Nenets like reindeer kidney and liver; fresh reindeer blood is also very popular. It may be difficult to imagine, but children of 4 or 5 years drink fresh blood from processed reindeer meat from their mugs like we used to drink cocoa when we were children. Obviously, the Nenets also like reindeer fat, and attach special importance to some parts of the antlers of young reindeer. The Nenets have never consumed vegetables, fruits or milk; they cover their needs for vitamins entirely from food of animal origin. In the summer months, they often eat fish (mostly raw).

Watch the video below to learn more about the traditional diet of a Nenets family.

Coffee consumption from the perspective of toxicology and nutrition. Let us see the facts.

Coffee consumption from the perspective of toxicology and nutrition. Let us see the facts.

Coffee consumption from the perspective of toxicology and nutrition. Let us see the facts.

Csaba Tóth, Zsófia Clemens


Coffee consumption from the perspective of toxicology and nutrition. Let us see the facts.

There are many recreational drugs, but while alcohol, tobacco, carbohydrates, and, above all, narcotics and intoxicants are officially recognised as having a detrimental effect on human health, coffee enjoys unwaning popularity. Coffee smells pleasant, and it always accompanies social events and simple home meals alike. Some drink one coffee a day, others several mugs – and this does not necessarily depend on national culture. The media loves the topic of coffee; an online article on coffee is bound to attract many readers and many clicks. But this article is not meant to be a clickbait.

So if you are interested in the origin, cultivation and processing of the coffee plant or in consumer habits, I recommend a Google search. This article focusses exclusively on the impact of coffee on human health, and puts gastronomic considerations aside. Now, let us look at the facts. These facts differ from what we would like to hear to justify that our addiction is good. They also differ from what is in the interest of coffee traders.

You can read or hear contradictory statements about coffee on the very same day or in the very same media. In the morning, you are told that three coffees improve memory. In the evening, you hear that you must be careful because coffee consumption contributes to the development of dementia. My favourite “fact” is that, according to Swedish researchers, there is a correlation between female breast size and coffee consumption; more specifically, three coffees a day shrink the breasts, but reduce the risk of cancer. This is bad news for women who then must choose between breast size and good memory, but at least they can avoid breast cancer. But let us be serious.

From a botanical perspective, coffee is not a bean. Apparently, the term “bean” was applied in the early days, but coffee, in fact, is a fruit. It is the seeds of the fruits that are processed and then used as a recreational product.

To see the impact of coffee on human health, we must approach the issue from the perspective of toxicology. Of course, the first factor to examine is always caffeine. Caffeine is a large chemical molecule synthesised by the plant to protect the fruit from being damaged prematurely by insects and herbivores. Just like tea bush, the coffee plant contains caffeine and theobromine (the penultimate metabolite of caffeine synthesis). Incidentally, tea contains twice as much caffeine as coffee does. Obviously, these substances are also found in chocolate and cocoa. This means that caffeine is a poison which can potentially be deadly to insects; what is more, in some mammals theobromine causes deadly poisoning. Caffeine is an insecticide produced by the coffee plant as a form of self-protection.

Caffeine has been studied extensively; the results are diverse. I do not want to bore the reader with details of contradictory scientific studies on coffee. However, there are two major problems with these studies.

  1. The test of a nutrient will bring reliable and usable results only when studied in the context of a healthy diet. It will not suffice to analyse coffee consumption habits alone and then to associate them with a symptom or physiological event. Persons on the average Western diet consumes, on a daily basis, thousands of substances that affect their physiological processes. These substances, both individually and in combination, have an impact on the biochemical functioning of the human organism.
  2. When a study focusses on caffeine alone, it will fail to give information on other substances contained in coffee – and there are plenty of them. More than 800 affecting only the aroma have been identified so far. There are approximately 200 substances which affect the taste. All these substances will have an effect on coffee drinkers.

Although we are still at the beginning of our article, we can safely conclude that currently there is no available medical study that examines the effect of coffee reliably, and, therefore, the conclusions of relevant studies are not valid. This is why there are many contradictory statements and conclusions. These studies and their practical implications should be discarded right away.

As for substances in coffee other than caffeine, most of them change during preparation: their structure changes under the influence of heat. Caffeine, being a thermostable molecule, is an exception. It is not destroyed until the coffee beans are charred and burnt. Its molecular structure does not change when the beverage is prepared. The aroma and taste of the beverage are results of the change of other molecules, such as those which give the smell of soil and gasoline (plus, as I have mention, at least 788 more).


Volatile components identified in a type of coffee after roasting: hydrocarbons, pyrroles, nitrogen compounds (non-heterocyclic), alcohols, benzopyrroles, sulphur compounds (non-heterocyclic), aldehydes, pyrazines, phenols, ketones, benzopyrazines, furans, acids, pyridines, benzofurans, esters, benzopyridines, pyrans, ethers, tiophenes, pyrons, acetates, benzotiophenes, lactones, oxazoles, thiazoles, anhydrides, benzoxazoles, benzothiazoles, Total)


Coffee also contains various acids. With brewing, acids may break down into smaller molecules; still, plenty of them are left.

Because of the above, the details of roasting, temperature, pressure and brewing time are very important. It is possible to make disgusting coffee drinks even from the best ingredients.

The effects of caffeine are easy to sum up. Caffeine increases heart rate, and slightly increases blood pressure (only by 3–5 mmHg). It increases the cardiac output and diuresis (that is, the amount of urine), and stimulates the central nervous system. As for the latter, let us put it this way: caffeine blocks inhibitory mechanisms so that stimulatory mechanisms start to predominate, which means that caffeine clearly has an impact on the functioning of neurotransmitters. This is due to the fact that its chemical structure is similar to that of a transmitter called adenosine, and, therefore, it can bind to cells where adenosine would bind.

Most questions about coffee pertain to its impact on blood pressure. Is it advisable to drink coffee if one has high blood pressure? Does coffee increase blood pressure differently? It is impossible to say why it is retained in our collective consciousness and why medicine has left the previous piece of information as a heritage to us, but we can now safely say that coffee (more specifically, caffeine) increases the diameter of most blood vessels, and, therefore, lowers blood pressure. Coffee has nothing to do with the development of or maintaining high blood pressure. Even a few cups of coffee will not raise the blood pressure.

Another common statement is that coffee causes heartburn. Yet, in fact, relevant studies failed to take into account subjects’ diet.

Heartburn and reflux are not caused by coffee, but by cereals, dairy products and other carbohydrates consumed at the same time, such as the large amount of sugar or honey added to the coffee drink. It has been observed for nearly 10 years that coffee drinkers on a paleo-ketogenic diet do not develop reflux.

At this point, it is to be noted that most scientific publications on coffee are based on questionnaires, and, most often, on the subjective opinion of respondents. No measurements or physical examinations are conducted to substantiate the findings. This fact, coupled with the criticism discussed above, also leads to the conclusion that none of the studies are to be considered valid; not to mention that it is practically impossible to make two identical coffee drinks in which chemicals are present in the exactly same combination.

The chemical composition of coffee:

  • sugar, mainly polysaccharides
  • alkaloids
  • trigonellines
  • nicotinic acid
  • amino acids/proteins
  • caffeine
  • theobromine
  • theophylline,
  • carboxylic acid and other acids
  • volatile components (currently, approximately 800 of them are known; all of them can be present at the same time). See the Figure above.
  • vegetable oils

Evidently, when speaking about coffee, the products of a smaller chemical plant are listed. It is also easy to see that such substances do have an effect on the human organism.

Now, let us discuss the factors that basically determine whether coffee consumption is healthy or not.

As shown by the author’s nearly 10 years of experience in nutrition intervention, patients on a paleo-ketogenic diet (i.e. a meat/fat-based diet) often have complaints that cease once they quit coffee. Such complaints include fatigue, tightness in the throat, numbness, cramps in the calves, muscle ache, changes in vision, eczema on the scalp and back of the hands, low back pain, swelling of the face, papular rash on the back (autoimmune nodules) diarrhoea, etc. The cause of low back pain and muscle pain is rhabdomyolysis, or the disintegration of muscle cells due to an autoimmune process. This is the most sever effect of coffee.

All these complaints are clearly linked to coffee consumption. Obviously, they are not necessarily specific.

The substances in coffee, even when consumed in small amounts, increase the permeability of the natural biological membrane in the gut system, which, in turn, may trigger inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune processes. The resulting inflammation can cause, among others, fatigue. These changes and processes are shown by laboratory tests.

The figure below indicates the results of an intestinal permeability test of a patient conducted in our laboratory. As shown in the figure, intestinal permeation switched back to normal after the patient had quitted coffee. The patient had been on a paleo-ketogenic diet for three years.

The substances in coffee drinks can also inhibit the absorption of certain nutrients, such as iron. Iron deficiency has been identified in a very large number of cases; it has not necessarily resulted in anaemia, but still remains a characteristic manifestation of coffee consumption.

As evidenced by our anamnestic data, among patients with certain diseases the rate of those who consume coffee is very high. In such cases, the consumption of tea, cocoa and chocolate can actually have impacts similar to those of coffee. Such impacts include glioblastoma (one of the fastest-growing tumours), hypothyroidism, enlarged prostate, multiple sclerosis and low back pain.

When it comes to coffee consumption, quantity and frequency obviously matter. It is very difficult to consume the lethal dose: LD50 (i.e. the amount that causes fatal poisoning in 50% of people) is approximately one cup of coffee / kg body weight. Obviously, it is not easy to drink that quantity.

It is recommended that people with autoimmune diseases or tumours quit coffee completely. People who have recovered from their autoimmune disease can experiment with coffee consumption once their intestinal permeation has returned to normal, but they should consume very small amounts, up to one espresso a day. For cancer patients, it is recommended to avoid coffee consumption for life.

Pregnant women are also advised not to drink coffee. The placenta acts as a biological membrane between the mother and the fetus, similarly to the membrane which separates the intestinal cavity from the blood. Coffee has an unfavourable effect on the permeability of the placental membrane similar to its effect on intestinal permeability. This may worsen unpleasant problems during pregnancy. Large amounts of coffee can even cause miscarriages or act as a teratogenic factor. It is better to avoid such risks.

To conclude, from the perspective of medical toxicology, coffee is not healthy. It modifies the functioning of biological membranes, and triggers inflammations, allergies or autoimmune processes. Those who still choose to consume even a small amount of coffee can expect unpleasant symptoms and effects.

Mention must be made of one more thing about coffee: addiction. Unfortunately, coffee (similarly to alcohol and tobacco) causes physical and mental addiction. The addiction can be overcome, but it still can cause weeks of discomfort and put one’s perseverance to a very difficult test. Addiction to caffeine used to be included in the International Classification of Diseases until 2010. When you drink coffee, the number of adenosine receptors on cell membranes grows in your organism. The organism senses that something is taking up the space of adenosine and inhibition is decreasing; in response, it builds new receptors into the membrane. When you quit coffee, the number of receptors suddenly will be too high, and adenosine will overwork, which means that you experience slowness, tiredness and drowsiness. These are the worst symptoms of coffee withdrawal. It is good news that this condition lasts only a few days or, at most, a week or two. Another common symptom of withdrawal is migraine-like headache, which occurs as a result of the narrowing of blood vessels. As they say, addicted persons are weak, but, fortunately, addiction to coffee is easy to overcome physiologically. But it may take a long time, even years, to give up attachment to the bodily movements associated with coffee drinking, to the smell of coffee or to the social aspects of coffee consumption.

As a doctor, I can say only what is evidenced by the facts. Coffee is not healthy. It is not clear as yet how long or in what quantities someone on a healthy diet can consume coffee without having to face negative consequences. So, I suggest that you refrain from coffee consumption, or consume it as a rare treat (black or with honey) only on special occasions, and you should drink only coffee made from real coffee beans with a real coffee maker.